Emissions and Environmental Permits
Cement factories hold the necessary permits and licenses to be obtained pursuant to Turkish environmental legislation.
The "Environmental Permit/Environmental Permit and License" required to be obtained in accordance with the "Regulation on Permits and Licenses Required Under the Environmental Law", which entered into force in 2010 and combines all permits/licenses under a single heading, has been obtained by almost all factories.
Cement factories are required to carry out "Environmental Measurements" before they can obtain environmental permits from the Ministry. These measurements are carried out periodically as stipulated in the regulations, while control measurements are carried out continuously through measurement devices installed in the chimneys after a permit has been obtained. The calibration of continuous measuring devices is also carried out periodically at the frequencies stipulated in the legislation. All environmental measurements in the sector are carried out by “independent accredited laboratories” that have been authorized by the Ministry of Environment, Urbanization and Climate Change.
In accordance with the "Regulation on Waste Incineration", a trial incineration is carried out by accredited laboratories authorized by the Ministry of Environment and Urbanization, after which periodic measurements are made.
Position of the Turkish Cement Sector
The “Environment Declarations of the Cement Sector” were signed between TÜRKÇİMENTO and the Ministry of Environment, Urbanization and Climate Change, as it is now known, in 1993, and again later in 2004. Through these declarations, the cement sector pledged to reduce its emissions even below the limits specified in the regulations. In the years following the signing of the declarations, the sector made necessary investments into emissions control, improved its processes and obtained all environmental permits. It has also conducted pilot studies in many areas to facilitate its adaptation to the new environmental legislation, and was the first sector to complete the approval processes with the Ministry in this regard.
By investing in bag filters in recent years, many facilities have achieved emissions much lower than the legal limits.
In 2018, nitrogen oxide reduction systems that use ammonia have been installed in many facilities to reduce nitrogen oxide emissions. Türkiye imports the ammonia that is used for the removal of NOx. During operations, aside from the costs associated with the import of ammonia, there are also logistical problems. There are ammonia production facilities in the Marmara and Mediterranean regions, and so the gas must be brought from facilities more than 1,000 km away from plants located in regions such as the Black Sea and Eastern Anatolia.
TÜRKÇİMENTO and representatives of the sector closely follow the ongoing studies related to the Regulation on Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control and the Communiqué on Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control in the Cement Sector that will come into force in the coming years.
In this context, the following documents are examined:
• Reference Document on Best Available Techniques: Reference Document on Best Available Techniques for the cement sector under the EU Industrial Emissions Directive 2010/75/EU (2013)
• MET Results, Results on the Application of the Best Available Techniques under the EU Industrial Emissions Directive 2010/75/EU (March 2013)
It is important to establish rules that are no more stricter than the requirements set forth in EU legislation, to reflect the realities of our country and take cost into account. It is, for example, important to take into account any importation/logistical problems that may be encountered and any additional operating costs that may result from the application of the 200–450 mg/Nm3 range in our country in the coming years.
European Union Legislation Followed
EU Green Deal Industry Plan
The EU Green Deal Industry Plan increases the competitiveness of Europe's net zero industries and accelerates the transition to climate neutrality. The Green Deal Industry Plan is designed to create a more supportive environment for the development of net zero technologies and products, and to increase the capacity of the EU's manufacturers to achieve the EU's ambitious climate goals.
EU Net-Zero Industry Act (NZIA)
The Net-Zero Industry Act (NZIA) aims fundamentally at promoting the use of clean technologies in the EU and accelerating the EU's transition to clean energy. The Act is intended to create better conditions in Europe for the encouragement of net zero projects and investments. According to the European Commission, the Net Zero Industry Act is designed to increase production and to ensure the effective use of technologies to achieve climate neutrality. This law sets a target for net zero production capacity sufficient to meet 40% of the EU's annual technology needs by 2030.
EU Critical Raw Materials Act (CRMA)
The EU has enacted the European Critical Raw Materials Act covering 30 critical raw materials that are considered to be of strategic importance to the European economy. The EU aims to access critical raw materials under this Act. This is crucial for the EU's net zero emission targets. The EU Commission also aims to reduce dependence on other countries by increasing the number of sources of critical raw materials. The objective is to ensure that 10% of the critical raw materials used in the EU are extracted in Europe by 2030, and for 15% of each critical raw material consumed annually within the EU is obtained from recycling. Within the scope of the Act, 65% of critical raw materials consumed annually in the EU will originate from a single third country by 2030, and the EU will increase its raw material processing capacity and produce at least 40% of its critical annual raw material needs.
Last Updated: 3 August 2023